By Alan Mitchell, Jean-Paul Mouchet
This useful guide brings jointly quite a lot of bibliographic info on irregular pressures and provides the sensible adventure of the authors and numerous specialists inside of Elf-Aquitaine. basically destined for day after day use by way of subsurface geologists and drilling engineers anyplace they're faced with the issues of overpressure, it describes some of the origins of strain anomalies, and info the equipment to be had for his or her prediction, detection and assessment. it is going to even be necessary to petroleum geologists, petroleum engineers and reservoir engineers as a reference guide.
checklist of primary Abbreviations
desk of Contents
1. strain thoughts
2. The Origins of Non-Hydrostatic irregular Pressures
three. Prediction and Detection
four. Quantitative strain overview
five. precis and total Conclusions - support Chart
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Additional resources for Abnormal Pressures while Drilling - Origins, Prediction, Detection, Evaluation
Note that in a tectonic stress field, vertical forces are no longer the main influence on compaction. This can be shown in calcareous series subjected to compressive tectonic 50 stress, where stylolites possessing oblique or even horizontal peaks art, seen to occur. On the other hand, if such series are compacted by overburden effects or subjected to tectonic extension, stylolites exhibit vertical peaks. Tectonic action can set up stresses so rapidly that fluid expulsion is hampered, and this can generate overpressure.
Osmotic pressure across a membrane of pure clay (from Fertl, 1976, adapted from Jones, 1968. ). 45 In a closed environment, the migration of water towards a reservoir with higher salinity tends to increase pressure in that reservoir until differential pressure is equal to osmotic pressure. 26). The plot relates to pure clay. It is intended to give differential pressures as orders of magnitude only, and cannot be applied directly to geological situations. Differential pressure as indicated by Jones can exceed 246 kg/cm2 (3 500 psi).
This special texture makes chalk behave rather like clay with respect to porosity reduction and water expulsion during burial. These pelagic carbonates are deposited slowly, and their initial porosity is around 70 %. This porosity is gradually reduced to a value of between 5 and 10 % at 3 OOO m. Very thick chalk deposits may develop undercompaction because of their low permeability, When porosity declines to a levet of 35 % or less, mechanical compaction is replaced by "chemical compaction" (ie.